### Section 7.6.7.13Mandel

The mandel pattern computes the standard Mandelbrot fractal pattern and projects it onto the x-y-plane. It uses the x and y coordinates to compute the Mandelbrot set. The pattern is specified with the keyword mandel followed by an integer number. This number is the maximum number of iterations to be used to compute the set. Typical values range from 10 up to 256 but any positive integer may be used. For example:

pigment { mandel 25 color_map { [0.0 color Cyan] [0.3 color Yellow] [0.6 color Magenta] [1.0 color Cyan] } scale .5 }

The value passed to the color map is computed by the formula:

value = number_of_iterations / max_iterations

When used as a normal pattern, the syntax is...

normal { mandel ITER, BUMP_AMOUNT }

where the required integer ITER value is optionally followed by a float bump size.

### Section 7.6.7.14Marble

The marble pattern is very similar to the gradient x pattern. The gradient pattern uses a default ramp_wave wave type which means it uses colors from the color map from 0.0 up to 1.0 at location x=1 but then jumps back to the first color for x > 1 and repeats the pattern again and again. However the marble pattern uses the triangle_wave wave type in which it uses the color map from 0 to 1 but then it reverses the map and blends from 1 back to zero. For example:

pigment { gradient x color_map { [0.0 color Yellow] [1.0 color Cyan] } }

When used with turbulence and an appropriate color map, this pattern looks like veins of color of real marble, jade or other types of stone. By default, marble has no turbulence.

### Section 7.6.7.15Onion

Onion is a pattern of concentric spheres like the layers of an onion. Each layer is one unit thick.

### Section 7.6.7.16Quilted

The quilted pattern was originally designed only to be used as a normal pattern. The quilted pattern is so named because it can create a pattern somewhat like a quilt or a tiled surface. The squares are actually 3-D cubes that are 1 unit in size.

When used as a normal pattern it uses a specialized normal perturbation function. This means that the quilted pattern cannot be used with normal map, slope map or wave type modifiers in a normal statement.

normal { quilted AMOUNT control0 C0 control1 C1 }

The values should generally be kept to around the 0.0 to 1.0 range. The default value is 1.0 if none is specified. Think of this gouge between the tiles in cross-section as a sloped line.

Quilted pattern with c0=0 and different values for c1.

Quilted pattern with c0=0.33 and different values for c1.

Quilted pattern with c0=0.67 and different values for c1.

Quilted pattern with c0=1 and different values for c1.

This straight slope can be made to curve by adjusting the two control values. The control values adjust the slope at the top and bottom of the curve. A control values of 0 at both ends will give a linear slope, as shown above, yielding a hard edge. A control value of 1 at both ends will give an "s" shaped curve, resulting in a softer, more rounded edge.

The radial pattern is a radial blend that wraps around the +y-axis. The color for value 0.0 starts at the +x-direction and wraps the color map around from east to west with 0.25 in the -z-direction, 0.5 in -x, 0.75 at +z and back to 1.0 at +x. Typically the pattern is used with a frequency modifier to create multiple bands that radiate from the y-axis.

### Section 7.6.7.18Ripples

The ripples pattern was originally designed only to be used as a normal pattern. It makes the surface look like ripples of water. The ripples radiate from 10 random locations inside the unit cube area <0,0,0> to <1,1,1>. Scale the pattern to make the centers closer or farther apart.

When used as a normal pattern, ripples uses a specialized normal perturbation function. This means that the ripples pattern cannot be used with normal map, slope map or wave type modifiers in a normal statement.

When used in pigment or texture statements the ripples pattern uses the ramp_wave wave type by default but may use any wave type. The pattern may be used with color_map, pigment_map and texture_map.

### Section 7.6.7.19Spiral1

The spiral1 pattern creates a spiral that winds around the y-axis similar to a screw. Its syntax is:

pigment { spiral1 NUMBER_OF_ARMS }

The NUMBER_OF_ARMS value determines how may arms are winding around the y-axis.

### Section 7.6.7.20Spiral2

The spiral2 pattern is a modification of the spiral1 pattern with an extraordinary look.

### Section 7.6.7.21Spotted

The spotted pattern is identical to the bozo pattern. Early versions of POV-Ray did not allow turbulence to be used with spotted. Now that any pattern can use turbulence there is no difference between bozo and spotted. See section "Bozo" for details.

### Section 7.6.7.22Waves

The waves pattern was originally designed only to be used as a normal pattern. The waves pattern looks similar to the ripples pattern except the features are rounder and broader. The effect is to make waves that look more like deep ocean waves. The waves radiate from ten random locations inside the unit cube area <0,0,0> to <1,1,1>. Scale the pattern to make the centers closer or farther apart.

When used as a normal pattern, waves uses a specialized normal perturbation function. This means that the waves pattern cannot be used with normal map, slope map or wave type modifiers in a normal statement.

When used in pigment or texture statements the waves pattern uses the ramp_wave wave type by default but may use any wave type. The pattern may be used with color_map, pigment_map and texture_map.

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